If you want to keep your axolotl happy and healthy, then the most important thing for you to know about their water (besides proper temperature) is how to start and maintain a healthy nitrogen cycle. Understanding the various nitrogen cycle steps gives you a better understanding of your axolotl’s environment and how to improve it.
What Is The Nitrogen Cycle?
To put it simply, a nitrogen cycle is the presence of an active biological filter consisting of beneficial bacteria that break down nitrogenous aquatic animal wastes. Essentially, when your axolotls poop or leave food uneaten, these things rot and break down. As they break down, ammonia is released into the water.
Ammonia is toxic to your axolotl, they have a semi-permeable soft skin that makes them prone to sucking up toxins out of the water. As the ammonia levels build up, you will see your axolotl fall ill or even die.
Having a healthy nitrogen cycle means that you have established colonies of bacteria that break the ammonia down into nitrite, and then from nitrite into nitrate. This creates compounds that are not nearly as toxic as the initial ammonia, and which can also benefit any plants in your tank. A proper nitrogen cycle allows you to gets away with doing only a 25% change of tank water per week, whereas an uncycled tank can develop dangerous levels of ammonia quickly and require a 100% water change every 2 days or so.
For more on these chemicals and the role they play in tank management, visit our axolotl water chemistry page.
Quickstart Nitrogen Cycle
If you’re desperate to do a quick cycling of your tank, there are options for pre-bottled bacterial blends, but these have pretty mixed reviews. Some people swear by them and some say they don’t work, but we would be remiss if we didn’t lay out your options. Two popular brands of bacterial starter are:
- DrTim’s Aquatics One & Only Live Nitrifying Bacteria for Cycling Aquaria
Nitrogen Cycle Steps: The Natural Method
Starting off, an important thing to note is that natural nitrogen cycle establishment takes time, as much as 4 to 12 weeks. This may seem like a long time, but remember that your axolotl can potentially live for 10 to 15 years. In comparison to their total lifespan, this is a relatively short amount of prep time that will have a drasticly positive impact on their health and longevity. Like a newborn baby, you want to be properly prepared when you bring home your first axolotl.
If you have the time and ability, it is best to at least try and start a natural nitrogen cycle, it’s really not difficult at all.
Tools you’ll need to start a natural nitrogen cycle:
- Water Testing Kit
- Water Conditioner
- Ammonium Chloride
- Your fully set up tank (including substrate, filter, etc.)
- Optional: An app such as Aquarium Note to help track your progress as well as keep tabs on your aquarium.
NOTE: If you want to better understand the 3 chemicals we will be monitoring during the cycling process, take a quick peek at the Water Chemistry page.
Nitrogen Cycle Steps:
- In a separate container, take the water that you plan to use and add your water conditioner according to the instructions on the bottle. This will remove chlorine and chlorinates, which are present in most tap water and which will disrupt or ruin your nitrogen cycle (these chemicals kill bacteria, including the ones you want to establish in your tank). As an axolotl owner, this is a ritual you should get used to, as all water that comes into contact with your axolotl, its tank filter, or that you use for water changes need to be treated in advance for this reason.
- Add your treated water into the tank, and let the filter run for 24-48 hours to make sure everything is working.
- Use your testing kit to determine the ammonia, pH, nitrite and nitrate levels of your water so you have a set of base measurements.
- Following the instruction on the bottle, add ammonia to your tank water until you have achieved a concentration of of 3-4 ppm (parts per million).
- Wait 2 or 3 days and then measure the ammonia level, continue doing this at regular intervals until you notice the ammonia levels dropping. Around days 9-12, your ammonium should be dropping and you might be able to measure some nitrite.
- When your ammonia levels have dropped to 1ppm, add more ammonium to bring it back up to 3-4ppm. Somewhere between days 14 and 20 you should notice your nitrite start to spike. This means your first set of bacteria are taking hold and breaking down the ammonia, so you’re halfway there.
- At this point, you can just add small amounts of ammonia, as you want to avoid the nitrite levels rising over 5ppm, as this will poison the bacteria that will convert it into nitrate. Once these bacteria appear and you do start to see the nitrite decrease, it will drop very fast.
- Once the nitrite levels drop you should be getting measurable amounts of nitrate. At this point, all the bacteria that need to be present have established themselves. When you can add a full ammonia dose of 4ppm and by the next day have a reading of 0ppm ammonia, 0ppm nitrite, and a measureable amount of nitrate then you tank is fully cycled.
Once you have a cycle established, you will be doing water testing every now and then to monitor the quality of your axolotl’s tank water. You may encounter what is known as a “cycle bump,” which is a small spike in ammonia or nitrite. This can occur if for some reason the bacteria colony is diminished or new ammonia sources are added to the tank. These will usually resolve themselves in a week or so as the bacteria colony adjusts itself to the new tank conditions.
Keep Reading: Axolotl Care Sheet
- Tank Size and Requirements
- Filter and Water Temperature Requirements
- Starting a Nitrogen Cycle – Current Page
- Substrate Requirements
- Hides, Plants, and Decor
- Tank Cleaning and Water Chemistry
- Diet and Nutrition
- Illness, Injury, and Treatment
- Additional Reading and Resources